Câu Tường Thuật

Câu Tường Thuật

Câu trực tiếp và câu gián tiếp (Direct and Reported speech):

Giống: Luôn có 2 phần: mệnh đề tường thuậtlời nói trực tiếp hay lời nói gián tiếp

Eg: Tom says, “I go to college next summer”

         MĐTT                  Lời nói trực tiếp

      Tom says (that) he goes to college next summer

        MĐTT                    Lời nói gián tiếp

 Khác:   

a. Direct speech: Là lời nói được thuật lại đúng nguyên văn của người nói. Được viết giữa dấu trích hay ngoặc kẫp và ngăn cách với mệnh đề tường thuật bởi dấu phẩy

eg: John said, “I like reading science books”

      The teacher said, “I’ll give you a test tomorrow”

b. Reported speech/ Indirect speech: Là lời nói được thuật lại với ý và từ của người thuật, nhưng vẫn giữ nguyên ý. Không bị ngăn cách bởi dấu phẩy hay dấu ngoặc kẫp, và luôn tận cùng bằng dấu chấm câu.

Eg: John said (that) he liked reading science books

      The teacher said (that) he would give us a test the next day

Các thay đổi trong câu gián tiếp

Thay đổi động từ tường thuật

Động từ tường thuật của lời nói trực tiếp phải được đổi phù hợp với nghĩa hoặc cấu trúc câu của lời nói gián tiếp

Eg:

He said, “Do you like coffee?” –

->He asked me if I liked coffee

 “If I were you, I’d not buy that coat,” said Mary

–>Mary advised me not to buy the coat

Chú ý:

SAY TO: không bao giờ được dùng ở lời nói gián tiếp. (phải đổi bằng TELL + (O))

TELL: không bao giờ được dùng ở lời nói trực tiếp.

Thay đổi các ngôi (đại từ, tính từ, đại từ sở hữu):

 VD:  Mr Nam said to Hoa, “You take your book out and show it to me

– Tình huống 1: Một người bạn của Hoa tường thuật với người bạn khác: Mr Nam told Hoa that she took her book out and showed it to him.

– Tình huống 2: Hoa tường thuật với một người bạn khác: Mr Nam told me that I took my book out and showed it to him

– Tình huống 3: Thầy Nam tường thuật với người khác: I told Hoa that she took her book out and showed it to me

Thay đổi thời gian, địa điểm, các từ chỉ định

Từ chỉ thời gian

Câu Trực TiếpCâu Gián Tiếp
nowthen, at that time, at once, immediately
an hour agoan hour before/ an hour earlier
todaythat day
tonightthat night
yesterdaythe day before/ the previous day

tomorrow

the next day/ the following day

yesterday morning/ afternoonthe previous morning/ afternoon

tomorrow morning
the next/ following morning

the day before yesterday

two days before

the day after tomorrow

(in) two days’ time

last year

the year before/ the previous year

next monththe month after/ the following month

Từ chỉ nơi chốn, địa điểm:

HERE => THERE: Khi chỉ một địa điểm xác định

Eg: “Do you put the pen here?” he said –> He asked me if I put the pen there

HEREà cụm từ thích hợp tùy theo nghĩa:

Eg: She said to me, “You sit here” –> She told me to sit next to her.

      “Come here, John,” he said –> He told John to come over him.

Các đại từ chỉ định:

THIS/ THESE + từ chỉ thời gian –> THAT/ THOSE

Eg: “They’re coming this evening,” he said. –> He said (that) they were coming that evening

THIS/THESE + danh từ –> THE

Eg: “Is this book yours?” said Mary –> Mary asked me if the book was mine

THIS/THESE: chỉ thị đại từ –> IT/ THEM

Eg: He said, “I like this” –> He said (that) he liked it

      Ann said to Tom, “Please take these into my room” –> Ann asked Tom to take them into her room

Thay đổi thì của động từ

Các trường hợp thay đổi thì:

Khi các động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì quá khứ, động từ trong câu gián tiếp phải lùi về quá khứ một thì so với câu trực tiếp.

Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
Simple Present:
“I don’t know this man”
Simple Past:
He said he didn’t know that man
Present Continuous:
“I’m working for a foreign company”
Past Continuous:
He said he was working for a foreign company
Present Perfect:
“I’ve read a good book”
Past Perfect:
He said he had read a good book
Present Perfect Continuous:
“I have been writing my report”.
Past Perfect Continuous:
He said he had been writing his report
Simple Past:
“I finished my assignment”
Past Perfect:
He said he had finished his assignment
Simple Future:
“I will do it later”
Future in the past:
He said he would do it later.
Modal Verbs:
“I can work late today” “I may see her tonight” “I must/have to go now”
Past forms of modals:
He said he could work late that day He said he might see her that night He said he had to go then

Các trường hợp không thay đổi thì:

a. Khi động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì hiện tại đơn, tương lai đơn hay hiện tại hoàn thành:

Eg: He says, “I don’t know the answer to your question”

–> He says to me that he doesn’t know the answer to my question

      They’ll say, “We’ll buy a new house”

–> They’ll say (that) they will buy a new house

b. Khi động từ tường thuật (say, tell, ask…) ở thì quá khứ, động từ trong câu gián tiếp không đổi thì  trong các trường hợp sau:

Tường thuật một sự thật hiển nhiên, một chân lý, định luật khoa học hay vật lý:

Eg: My teacher said, “Russia is the biggest country in the world”

=> My teacher said that Russia is the biggest country in the world

       He said, “health is more precious than gold”

=> He said (that) health is more precious than gold

Được tường thuật ngay sau khi nói hay khi thuật lại sự kiện vẫn không đổi:

Eg: (In class): A: What did the teacher say?

                 B:  He said (that) he wants us to do our homework

Khi động từ trong câu trực tiếp là các động từ như: USED TO, hay các động từ khiếm khuyết: COULD, WOULD, SHOULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO, HAD TO, HAD BETTER

Eg: He said, “They might win the game” –> He said to me that they might win the game.

– Với MUST diễn tả lời khuyên:

Eg: “This book is very useful. You must read it”, Tom said to me.

–> Tom told me (that) the book was very useful and I must read it.

– Khi động từ trong  câu trực tiếp ở các thì: Past Continuous, Past perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, (nếu thì Simple Past đi kèm một thời gian cụ thể có thể không thay đổi thì).

Eg: He said, “I was eating when he called me”

–> He told me he was eating when she called him.

– Khi tường thuật mệnh đề ước muốn (wish): theo sau động từ WISH, WOULD RATHER, IF ONLY

    Eg:  He said, “I wish I were richer”

–> He told me he wished he were richer

     She said, “I wish I had a good memory”

–> She said she wished she had a good memory

 – Các câu điều kiện loại 2, 3 (câu điều kiện không thật)

Eg: He said, “If I had time, I would help you”

–> He said to me if he had time, he would help me

– Cấu trúc “It’s (high) time…”

Eg: He said, “It’s time we went”

–> He said it was time they went.

He said, “It’s time we changed our way of working”

–> He said (that) it was time they changed their way of working.

Các loại câu gián tiếp

Tường thuật câu trần thuật (statements)

– Dùng say hoặc tell để tường thuật

– Thường bắt đầu bằng: He said that…./ she said to me that…/ they told me that….,

Eg:

She said, “I’m happy to see you again”

=>She said that she was happy to see me again

She said to me that she was happy to see me again

=>She told me that she was happy to see me again

– Chú ý đổi thì, các đại từ, các từ chỉ thời gian, địa điểm…

Tường thuật câu hỏi (questions)

Đối với câu hỏi trực tiếp (Wh-question)

– Thường bắt đầu bằng: He asked (me) …/ He wanted to know…/ She wondered….

Eg:

She asked, “What is his job?”

–> She asked what his job was.

They asked me, “Where did you have lunch?”

–> They asked me where I had lunch.

– Không đặt trợ động từ trước chủ ngữ như trong câu hỏi trực tiếp.

– Không đặt dấu chấm hỏi cuối câu. 

– Thay đổi thì, đại từ, các từ chỉ thời gian, địa điểm…

Đối với câu hỏi “Yes – No” hoặc câu hỏi lựa chọn “Or”

– Phải thêm từ “if/whether” để mở đầu câu tường thuật

Eg: She asked, “are you a teacher?”

–> She asked him if/ whether he was a teacher

      They asked me, “Do you want to go or stay at home?”

–>  They asked me if/ whether I wanted to go or stay at home.

– Câu hỏi đuôi được tường thuật giống câu hỏi Yes/No nhưng bỏ phần đuôi phía sau

Eg: She asked, “You will stay here, won’t you?”

–> She asked me if/whether I would stay there.

Câu tường thuật với “infinitive”:

Tường thuật câu mệnh lệnh, yêu cầu (Imperatives/ Commands or Requests) 

Dùng cấu trúc: tell/ ask/ request/ order somebody (not) to do something

Eg:

“Read carefully before signing the contract,” he said.

–> He told me to read carefully before signing the contract)

 “The commander said to his soldier, “Shoot!”

–>The commander ordered his soldier to shoot.

“Please talk slightly,” they said.

–>They requested us to talk slightly.

“Listen to me, please”

–>H e asked me to listen to him.

 “Will you help me, please?”

–>He asked me to help him.

  “Will you lend me your dictionary?”

–>He asked me to lend him my dictionary.

Tường thuật lời khuyên (Advice)

Dùng cấu trúc: advise somebody (not) to do something

Lời khuyên: – Had better, ought to, should, must

                    – Why don’t you + V?

                    – If I were you, I’d (not) + V…

Eg:

“Why don’t you take a course in computer?” my teacher said to me.

=> My teacher advised me to take a course in computer.

Tường thuật lời mời (Invitation)

Dùng cấu trúc: invite somebody to do something

Eg:

“Would you like to have breakfast with me?” Tom said to me. 

–>Tom invited me to have breakfast with him.

Tường thuật lời cảnh báo (warn)

Dùng cấu trúc: warn somebody (not) to do something

“Don’t touch the red buttons,” said the mom to the child.

–>  The mom warns the child not to touch the red buttons

Tường thuật lời nhắc nhở (reminders)

Dùng cấu trúc: remind somebody to do something

“Don’t forget to turn off the lights before leaving,” Sue told me

–>Sue reminded me to turn off the lights before leaving

Tường thuật lời động viên (encouragement)

Dùng cấu trúc: encourage/ urge somebody to do something

“Go on, take part in the competition,” said my father

–>My father encouraged me to take part in the competition

Tường thuật lời cấu khẩn

Dùng cấu trúc: beg/implore somebody to do something

“Do me a favor, please,” said the servant to his master

–>The servant begged/implored his master to do him a favor.

Tường thuật lời đề nghị, tự nguyện (offers)

Dùng cấu trúc: offer to do something

Lời đề nghị: – Shall I + V

                    – Would you like me + to V

                    – Let me + V

Eg:

Mary said to Ann, “Shall I get you a glass of orange juice?”  

–> Mary offered to get Anna a glass of orange juice.

“Shall I bring you some tea?” He asked 

–>He offered to bring me some tea

Tường thuật lời hứa (Promises)

Dùng cấu trúc: promise (not) to do something

Eg:

“I’ll give the book back to you tomorrow,” he said

–>He promised to give the book back to me the next day.

Tường thuật lời đe dọa (threat)

Dùng cấu trúc: threaten to do something.

“I’ll shot if you move,” said the robber

–>The robber threatened to shoot if I moved

Câu tường thuật với “gerund”

Các cấu trúc của câu tường thuật với danh động từ:

S + V + V-ing: admit, deny, suggest…

S + V + preposition + V-ing: apologize for, complain about, confess to, insist on, object to, dream of, think of…

S + V + O + preposition + V-ing: accuse.. of, blame…for, congratulate…on, criticize…for, warn…about/against, praise…for, thank…for, prevent…from…

Eg:

“I’ve always wanted to study abroad,” he said. 

–>He’s dreaming of studying abroad.

 “It’s nice of you to give me some fruit. Thanks,” Ann said to Mary

=>Ann thanked Mary for giving her some fruit

“I’m sorry, I’m late,” Tom said to the teacher. 

–>Tom apologized to the teacher for being late

 “Shall we meet at the theater?” he asked

–>He suggested meeting at the theater.   

Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp

What a lovely dress!

–>She exclaimed that the dress was lovely.

     She exclaimed that the dress was a lovely one.

     She exclaimed with admiration at the sight of the dress.

Các hình thức hỗn hợp trong lời nói gián tiếp

She said, “Can you play the piano?” and I said “no”       

=> She asked me if I could play the piano and I said that I could not

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